Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) approach. It focuses on accepting thoughts and feelings rather than fighting or feeling overwhelmed by them.

ACT Mechanism

People often struggle with intrusive thoughts and emotions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of psychotherapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness, along with commitment and behaviour change approaches, to increase psychological flexibility. Traditional CBT focuses on altering these thoughts, whereas ACT encourages acceptance, helping individuals manage their experiences.

Core Principles

ACT integrates mindfulness and behavioural change activities. It helps individuals embrace their thoughts and feelings while committing to actions that align with their values. Key features include cognitive defusion, acceptance, contact with the present moment, self-as-context, values, and committed action.

Convenience and Flexibility

ACT can be adapted to various mental health conditions and is flexible enough to be integrated with other therapeutic approaches.

Benefits of ACT

ACT aids in reducing the impact of difficult thoughts and emotions, promotes psychological flexibility, and encourages actions that lead to a meaningful life.


What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)?
ACT is a type of therapy within CBT that encourages individuals to accept their thoughts and feelings and commit to actions that align with their values.
How does ACT differ from traditional CBT?
While traditional CBT focuses on changing negative thoughts, ACT promotes acceptance of these thoughts and feelings, aiming for a more flexible approach to dealing with psychological distress.
What are the core processes of ACT?
ACT includes six core processes: acceptance, cognitive defusion, being present, self-as-context, values, and committed action.


  1. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2016). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: The Process and Practice of Mindful Change. The Guilford Press.
  2. Twohig, M. P., & Levin, M. E. (2017). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Anxiety and Depression: A Review. Psychiatric Clinics, 40(4), 751-768.
  3. Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2008). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Different Treatments, Similar Mechanisms? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15(4), 263-279.

Active Listening in Marriage Counselling

Active Listening

Active listening is an important part of marriage counselling. It involves more than just hearing words; it’s about fully understanding and engaging with your partner’s feelings and thoughts. This practice can significantly enhance communication and strengthen relationships.

Common Challenges

  1. Miscommunication and misunderstandings between partners.
  2. Emotional disconnection or feeling unheard.
  3. Escalating conflicts due to poor communication.

Understanding Active Listening

Active listening in marriage counselling is a process where partners learn to attentively listen and respond to each other. This skill helps in creating a supportive environment where both individuals feel valued and understood. Active listening involves being fully present in the conversation, paying attention to non-verbal cues, and providing feedback that shows understanding. It’s about listening with intent and without judgment.

How Active Listening Helps

Active listening builds trust and emotional intimacy, which are important for a healthy marriage. It enables partners to express themselves freely, knowing they are being heard and valued.

Key Features and Benefits:

  1. Enhanced Communication: Encourages open and honest dialogue.
  2. Emotional Connection: Promotes empathy and understanding.
  3. Conflict Resolution: Helps in de-escalating tensions and resolving disputes amicably.

How Active Listening in Marriage Counselling Works

During marriage counselling, an experienced therapist will guide couples through exercises and skills to practice active listening. This includes paraphrasing, reflecting feelings, and asking open-ended questions to ensure clarity and understanding.


What is active listening in marriage counselling?
Active listening is a communication practice used in marriage counselling where partners listen to each other with the intent to fully understand and engage with their feelings and thoughts.
How does active listening improve communication?
Active listening improves communication by ensuring both partners feel heard and understood, reducing misunderstandings and encouraging a more open dialogue.
Can active listening help resolve conflicts?
Yes, active listening can help resolve conflicts by de-escalating tensions and promoting mutual understanding and empathy.


  1. Psychology Today – Active Listening
  2. Verywell Mind – What Is Active Listening?
  3. – Active Listening in Marriage

Activity Scheduling

Activity Scheduling

Activity scheduling is a key part of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), designed to help individuals engage in meaningful activities that can improve mood and overall mental well-being.

Common Challenges

Individuals often face challenges such as:

  1. Difficulty finding motivation for daily tasks
  2. Feelings of depression or anxiety preventing engagement in activities
  3. Struggling with establishing a routine

Activity Scheduling Explained

Activity scheduling involves planning and organising activities that are enjoyable and rewarding, aimed at tackling negative moods and increasing engagement in helpful behaviours. Key features include:

  1. Structured approach to increase activity levels
  2. Focus on balancing pleasurable and necessary activities
  3. Customised schedules to fit individual preferences and needs

Benefits of activity scheduling include:

  1. Improved mood and reduced feelings of depression
  2. Better time management and routine establishment
  3. Heightened sense of accomplishment and motivation

Understanding Activity Scheduling

Activity scheduling is a therapeutic approach used in CBT to help individuals systematically plan and engage in activities that can improve their mood and overall mental health. By identifying and incorporating activities that bring a sense of structure or pleasure, individuals can break the cycle of inactivity and negative thinking.


Engaging in regular, planned activities can lead to significant improvements in mental health. It helps to reduce the impact of depression by promoting engagement in helpful experiences and providing a sense of structure and purpose.


To create and follow an activity schedule, individuals can:

  1. Identify activities that are enjoyable or necessary
  2. Plan these activities into a daily or weekly schedule
  3. Monitor progress and adjust the schedule as needed
  4. Reflect on the beneficial impact of these activities on mood and well-being


What is activity scheduling in CBT?
Activity scheduling is a therapeutic approach in CBT that involves planning and engaging in meaningful activities to improve mood and mental well-being.
How does activity scheduling help with depression?
By encouraging engagement in enjoyable and necessary activities, activity scheduling helps to break the cycle of inactivity and negative thinking that often accompanies depression.
What types of activities should be included in an activity schedule?
Activities should include a balance of pleasurable and necessary tasks which meet the individual’s preferences and needs.


  1. Beck, J. S. (2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Basics and Beyond. Guilford Press.
  2. Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., & Warmerdam, L. (2007). Behavioral activation treatments of depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(3), 318-326.
  3. Kanter, J. W., Manos, R. C., Bowe, W. M., Baruch, D. E., Busch, A. M., & Rusch, L. C. (2010). What is behavioral activation? A review of the empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(6), 608-620.

Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) in EMDR

Adaptive Information Processing (AIP)

Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) is a fundamental concept within Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. This theory suggests that the brain’s natural processing system can heal psychological trauma.

About AIP

Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) theory posits that traumatic memories are stored differently in the brain, causing distress and dysfunctional responses. EMDR therapy utilises AIP to reprocess these memories, aiming to integrate them into the brain’s natural memory network. This process can lead to a significant reduction in emotional distress and an improvement in mental well-being.

Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) is central to understanding how EMDR therapy functions. This theory suggests that the brain has a natural ability to process and integrate information, including traumatic memories, into a cohesive and healthy framework.

How It Helps

AIP helps explain why some traumatic memories cause ongoing distress. By understanding AIP, clients and experienced therapists can work together to reprocess these memories, potentially reducing their effects and promoting mental well-being.

How It Works

During EMDR sessions, the therapist guides the client through specific protocols that activate the brain’s information processing system. This process aims to transform distressing memories into more adaptive and integrated ones, aligning with the AIP theory.


What is Adaptive Information Processing (AIP)?
Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) is a theory in EMDR therapy that explains how the brain processes and integrates traumatic memories. It suggests that the brain can naturally heal itself by reprocessing these memories.
How does AIP relate to EMDR therapy?
AIP is the theoretical foundation of EMDR therapy. It posits that through specific therapeutic protocols, the brain can reprocess traumatic memories, leading to reduced psychological distress and improved mental health.
What are the benefits of understanding AIP?
Understanding AIP provides insight into how and why EMDR therapy works. It highlights the brain’s natural healing capabilities and helps clients and experienced therapists work together to address and reprocess traumatic memories.


  1. Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Basic Principles, Protocols and Procedures. Guilford Press.
  2. Solomon, R. M., & Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR and the Adaptive Information Processing Model: Potential Mechanisms of Change. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 315-325.
  3. Leeds, A. M. (2009). A Guide to the Standard EMDR Protocols for Clinicians, Supervisors, and Consultants. Springer Publishing Company.

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) in Neurodiversity-affirmative Therapy

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

ADHD is defined as a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In the context of neurodiversity-affirmative therapy, ADHD is approached with a focus on recognising and valuing neurological differences. This perspective emphasises the unique strengths and abilities of individuals with ADHD, promoting a more inclusive and supportive therapeutic environment.

Challenges Faced

Individuals with ADHD often encounter difficulties in maintaining attention, controlling impulses, and managing hyperactivity. These challenges can impact various aspects of life, including academic performance, work efficiency, and interpersonal relationships. Traditional therapeutic approaches may not always consider the neurodiversity perspective, potentially overlooking the unique needs and strengths of those with ADHD.

About ADHD

ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental condition that manifests in childhood and is likely to persist into adulthood. It is characterised by patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which can vary in intensity and impact.

Therapeutic Benefits

Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy offers numerous benefits, including:

  1. Validation: Recognising and affirming the experiences of individuals with ADHD.
  2. Empowerment: Encouraging self-acceptance and confidence by focusing on strengths.
  3. Adaptation: Helping individuals develop personalised ways to manage challenges confidently.

Therapeutic Approach

Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy acknowledges ADHD as a variation of functioning rather than a deficit. This approach focuses on:

  1. Emphasising strengths: Highlighting the strengths and abilities associated with ADHD, such as creativity, problem-solving skills, and high energy levels.
  2. Individualised support: Providing specialised support that addresses specific challenges while leveraging individual strengths.
  3. Inclusive environment: Creating a therapeutic space that respects and values neurological diversity.

Therapy Process

This approach involves:

  1. Assessment: Understanding the individual’s unique profile of strengths and challenges.
  2. Goal setting: Collaborating to set realistic and meaningful goals.
  3. Ongoing support: Providing continuous guidance and adjustments to therapeutic interventions.


What is ADHD?
ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurodevelopmental condition marked by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
What is neurodiversity-affirmative therapy?
Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy is an approach that recognises and values neurological differences, focusing on the strengths and unique abilities of individuals.
How can neurodiversity-affirmative therapy help with ADHD?
This therapy approach emphasises individual strengths, provides personalised support, and creates an inclusive environment that respects and values neurodiversity.
What are the benefits of focusing on strengths in therapy?
Focusing on strengths can boost self-esteem, enhance motivation, and help individuals develop confident approaches for managing challenges.


  1. Brown, T. E. (2020). ADHD and Asperger Syndrome in Smart Kids and Adults: Twelve Stories of Struggle, Support, and Treatment. Routledge.
  2. Armstrong, T. (2010). Neurodiversity: Discovering the Extraordinary Gifts of Autism, ADHD, Dyslexia, and Other Brain Differences. Da Capo Lifelong Books.
  3. Kapp, S. K. (Ed.). (2020). Autistic Community and the Neurodiversity Movement: Stories from the Frontline. Palgrave Macmillan.

Affirmative Therapy in LGBTQI Therapy

Affirmative Therapy

Affirmative therapy is a therapeutic approach that validates and supports the identity and experiences of LGBTQI individuals. It aims to create a safe, non-judgmental space where clients can explore their feelings, address challenges, and strengthen their sense of self.

Addressing challenges

  1. Discrimination and prejudice
  2. Internalised homophobia and transphobia
  3. Identity exploration and acceptance
  4. Relationship dynamics within LGBTQI contexts

Affirmative therapy explained

Affirmative therapy actively acknowledges and supports the unique experiences of LGBTQI individuals. This approach is designed to help clients explore issues related to their identity, offering a validating environment that encourages open discussion and self-acceptance. Key features include:

  1. Culturally competent care that respects and understands LGBTQI identities.
  2. A focus on reducing the impact of minority stress.
  3. Empowerment through self-exploration and affirmation.
  4. Addressing both individual and relationship issues within an LGBTQI context.

Understanding affirmative therapy

Affirmative therapy is a specialised approach within LGBTQI therapy that focuses on creating an inclusive and supportive environment for clients. This method recognises the unique stressors faced by LGBTQI individuals and provides a therapeutic space that affirms their identity and experiences.

Benefits of affirmative therapy

Affirmative therapy helps clients by:

  1. Validating their experiences and identity
  2. Reducing feelings of shame and internalised stigma
  3. Promoting self-acceptance and resilience
  4. Enhancing relationship satisfaction and communication skills

How affirmative therapy works

Affirmative therapy involves:

  1. Providing a safe, non-judgmental space for discussion
  2. Using culturally sensitive therapeutic practices
  3. Encouraging exploration of identity and experiences
  4. Supporting clients in addressing specific challenges related to their LGBTQI status


What is the main goal of affirmative therapy?
The main goal of affirmative therapy is to support and validate the identity and experiences of LGBTQI individuals, helping them to build resilience and self-acceptance.
Who can benefit from affirmative therapy?
Affirmative therapy is beneficial for anyone who identifies as LGBTQI and seeks a supportive therapeutic environment to explore their identity and address related challenges.
How does affirmative therapy differ from traditional therapy?
Affirmative therapy specifically focuses on the unique experiences and needs of LGBTQI individuals, providing culturally competent care and a validating environment that traditional therapy may not always offer.


  1. Psychology Today: Affirmative Therapy
  2. BACP: Affirmative Therapy
  3. APA: Resources for Affirmative Therapy

Ally support in LGBTQI therapy

Ally support

Ally support is an important component of LGBTQI therapy, providing encouragement and advocacy for individuals within the LGBTQI community. It involves non-LGBTQI individuals offering solidarity and assistance, which can significantly enhance the therapeutic experience.

Common challenges

Many LGBTQI individuals face discrimination, isolation, and a lack of understanding. These challenges can severely impact their mental health and overall well-being. Ally support helps mitigate these issues by creating a supportive and inclusive environment.

What is ally support?

Ally support refers to the assistance and advocacy provided by non-LGBTQI individuals to LGBTQI people. In therapy, this support can play a vital role in creating an inclusive and understanding environment.

Key aspects

Ally support in LGBTQI therapy involves various forms of assistance:

  1. Advocacy: Allies can advocate for LGBTQI rights within and outside therapy sessions.
  2. Emotional support: Providing a listening ear and emotional backing to LGBTQI individuals.
  3. Creating safe spaces: Helping to create environments where LGBTQI clients feel safe and respected.


Ally support can significantly benefit LGBTQI therapy by:

  1. Building trust and rapport.
  2. Encouraging open communication.
  3. Reducing feelings of isolation.
  4. Reinforcing the client’s identity and experiences.
  5. Promoting a sense of belonging.

How it can help

Ally support can help by providing a sense of validation, promoting acceptance, and encouraging open dialogue. This can lead to improved mental health outcomes and a stronger sense of community for LGBTQI clients.

How it works

Allies in therapy can support LGBTQI clients by actively listening, advocating for their rights, and helping to create a safe and affirming therapeutic space. This involvement can help clients feel understood and supported throughout their therapeutic journey.


What is an ally in the context of LGBTQI therapy?
An ally is a non-LGBTQI individual who supports and advocates for the rights and well-being of LGBTQI people, particularly in therapeutic settings.
How can ally support improve LGBTQI therapy outcomes?
Ally support can improve therapy outcomes by creating an inclusive environment, validating the client’s experiences, and encouraging open and honest communication.
What role do allies play in creating safe spaces?
Allies contribute to creating safe spaces by advocating for LGBTQI rights, promoting understanding and acceptance, and actively working to eliminate discrimination and prejudice.


  1. Stonewall
  2. The Trevor Project
  3. Human Rights Campaign

Anorgasmia in Psychosexual Therapy


Anorgasmia, or the persistent inability to achieve orgasm, is a sexual dysfunction that can affect both men and women. It can lead to significant distress, impacting self-esteem, relationships, and overall wellbeing. Recognising the complexities of anorgasmia is essential for those seeking to address this condition through psychosexual therapy.

Common challenges

Individuals with anorgasmia often experience frustration, anxiety, and strain in their intimate relationships. The inability to reach orgasm despite adequate sexual stimulation can lead to feelings of inadequacy and emotional disconnect with partners.

Definition and overview

Anorgasmia is characterised by the persistent difficulty or inability to achieve orgasm. This condition can be classified as primary (lifelong), secondary (acquired), situational (occurring in specific situations or with specific partners), or generalised (occurring in all situations).

Therapeutic benefits

Psychosexual therapy helps address anorgasmia by exploring psychological, emotional, and physical factors. Therapists work with individuals and couples, using education, communication improvement, and personalised exercises to enhance sexual wellbeing and intimacy. It provides a safe space to discuss sexual concerns, reduce anxiety, and improve partner understanding.

Therapeutic process

The therapeutic process for anorgasmia typically involves several stages, including:

  1. Initial assessment to understand the individual’s sexual history and current challenges.
  2. Identifying psychological barriers such as anxiety, past trauma, or relationship issues.
  3. Education on sexual response and ways to enhance sexual experiences.
  4. Exercises to improve physical responses and communication practices to enhance intimacy.


What is anorgasmia?
Anorgasmia is the persistent inability to achieve orgasm despite adequate sexual stimulation and arousal.
How can psychosexual therapy help with anorgasmia?
Psychosexual therapy helps identify and address psychological, emotional, and physical factors contributing to anorgasmia, offering education, communication practices, and guided exercises.
Are there different types of anorgasmia?
Yes, anorgasmia can be primary (lifelong) or secondary (acquired), and it can be situational or generalised.


  1. NHS. (2023). Anorgasmia
  2. Levine, S. B. (2010). Sexual Life: A Clinician’s Guide. Springer.
  3. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH). (2021). BASHH Guidelines

Anxiety and Neurodiversity

Anxiety and Neurodiversity

Anxiety is a common experience among neurodiverse individuals, including those with autism, ADHD, dyslexia, and other neurodivergent conditions. The way anxiety manifests can vary widely depending on the individual’s specific neurodivergent profile. Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy recognises these unique manifestations and seeks to provide individualised support.

Unique challenges

Neurodiverse individuals often face unique challenges related to anxiety, including:

  • Sensory Overload: Many neurodiverse individuals, particularly those with autism, can experience heightened sensitivity to sensory stimuli, leading to increased anxiety in environments that others may find manageable.
  • Social Anxiety: Difficulties with social communication and interaction can lead to significant anxiety in social situations. This is common in conditions like autism and ADHD, where understanding social cues can be challenging.
  • Executive Functioning Issues: Individuals with ADHD often struggle with executive functioning tasks, such as organisation and time management, which can result in anxiety about meeting deadlines or completing tasks.
  • Perfectionism: Neurodiverse individuals may have a tendency toward perfectionism, feeling anxious about making mistakes or not meeting their own high standards.
  • Misunderstanding and Stigma: Facing misunderstanding or stigma from others about their neurodivergent traits can increase anxiety levels, contributing to feelings of isolation and self-doubt.

Supportive approaches

Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy offers several supportive approaches to address anxiety in neurodivergent individuals, including:

  1. Integrative Therapy (CBT): Adapted CBT and different therapeutic approaches can help neurodiverse individuals identify and challenge anxious thoughts, develop skills for addressing life challenges, and manage anxiety more productively.
  2. Mindfulness and Relaxation Practices: Practices such as mindfulness meditation and deep breathing exercises can be particularly helpful in reducing anxiety and improving emotional regulation.
  3. Sensory Tools: Adapting environments to reduce sensory overload, using tools such as noise-cancelling headphones or fidget devices, can help manage anxiety in neurodiverse individuals.
  4. Social Skills Training: Teaching social skills in a structured and supportive environment can reduce social anxiety and improve confidence in social interactions.
  5. Strength-Based Approaches: Focusing on the individual’s strengths and abilities, rather than deficits, helps build self-esteem and reduce anxiety.

About anxiety and neurodiversity

Anxiety and neurodiversity are interconnected in many ways. Understanding these concepts helps in creating beneficial therapeutic approaches:

  • Anxiety: A mental health condition characterised by feelings of worry, anxiety, or fear that are strong enough to interfere with one’s daily activities.
  • Neurodiversity: The concept that various neurological conditions are normal variations in the human genome.
  • Prevalence: Anxiety is more prevalent among neurodivergent individuals due to various cognitive and sensory processing differences.
  • Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy: A therapeutic approach that respects and values neurological differences, focusing on individual strengths and challenges.

How therapy can help

Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy supports neurodivergent individuals in several ways:

  1. Addresses anxiety within the context of an individual’s unique neurological makeup.
  2. Promotes understanding and acceptance of neurodivergent experiences.
  3. Encourages practices that leverage individual strengths.

How therapy works

The core principles and processes of neurodiversity-affirmative therapy for anxiety include:

  1. Individualised approach: Adapting therapy to fit the unique needs of neurodivergent individuals.
  2. Strength-based focus: Emphasising and utilising the individual’s strengths.
  3. Collaboration: Working together with the individual to develop practical skills.
  4. Respect: Valuing the individual’s experiences and perspectives.
Practical applications and examples may include sensory-friendly environments, flexible communication styles, and personalised skills for managing challenges in life.


What is neurodiversity-affirmative therapy?
Neurodiversity-affirmative therapy is a therapeutic approach that respects and values neurological differences, focusing on the strengths and unique experiences of neurodivergent individuals.
How does anxiety affect neurodivergent individuals?
Anxiety can manifest differently in neurodivergent individuals, often related to sensory processing differences, social challenges, and unique cognitive patterns.
What are the benefits of neurodiversity-affirmative therapy?
This approach promotes understanding, acceptance, and practices that leverage individual strengths, providing support for managing anxiety.


  1. Verywell Mind: What is Neurodiversity?
  2. Healthline: Anxiety
  3. Neurodiversity Matters: Neurodiversity-affirmative Therapy

Assessment Phase in EMDR

Assessment Phase

The Assessment Phase in EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing) is a critical step in the therapeutic process, focusing on identifying target memories and associated details for processing.

Identifying Memories

This phase addresses the need to pinpoint specific traumatic memories and related aspects that contribute to a person’s distress.

Detailed Examination

The Assessment Phase involves a thorough examination of the specific traumatic memories to be processed during EMDR. This phase emphasises a structured and careful approach to ensure memory processing. This phase is vital for the success of EMDR therapy as it lays the groundwork for the reprocessing of traumatic memories. By identifying the precise memories and their associated details, the therapist can guide the client through the EMDR process.

About the Assessment Phase

The Assessment Phase is the second phase in EMDR therapy, focusing on gathering information about the traumatic memories to be addressed. This phase is vital for adapting the therapy to the individual’s specific needs.

Steps Involved

The steps taken during the Assessment Phase include:

  1. Identifying target memories that cause distress.
  2. Noting the emotions and physical sensations connected to these memories.
  3. Establishing a baseline for tracking progress throughout the therapy.


What is the purpose of the Assessment Phase in EMDR?
The purpose is to identify specific traumatic memories and the associated emotional and physical reactions to prepare for processing in subsequent phases of EMDR therapy.
How are target memories selected?
Target memories are selected based on their impact on the individual’s current emotional and psychological state. The therapist works with the client to identify the most distressing memories for processing.
Why is the Assessment Phase important?
The Assessment Phase is important because it ensures that the therapy is focused and helpful by targeting specific memories that need to be reprocessed, which helps in alleviating the individual’s distress.


  1. EMDR International Association – About EMDR Therapy
  2. Verywell Mind – What Is EMDR Therapy?
  3. Psychology Today – Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy